Archive for Global Disease Alerts

PRO/AH/EDR> Ross River & Murray Valley encephalitis viruses – Australia: (SA) La Nina effect

Murray Valley encephalitis -- AustraliaSouth Australians have been warned that the risk of transmission of potentially deadly mosquito-borne diseases in the state is at its highest level in a decade.According to South Australia (SA) health authorities, conditions in the upcoming summer are shaping up to be similar to those in 2010/11 when the deadly Murray Valley encephalitis virus was last detected in humans and high numbers of the endemic Ross River virus were reported.Andrew Vickers, SA Health's Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Avian influenza (98): Europe, wild bird, poultry, H5N8, H5N5, H5, OIE

Avian Influenza H5N8 -- Worldwide/UnknownInformation received on [and dated] 27 Nov 2020 from Dr Herman Claeys, Chef du Service Politique sanitaire: Animaux et Vegetaux, Directorat-general Animaux, Vegetaux et Alimentation, Service Public Federal Sante publique, securite de la chaine alimentaire et environnement, Bruxelles, BelgiumSummaryReport type: immediate notificationDate of start of the event: 18 Nov 2020Date of confirmation of the event: 25 Nov 2020Reason for notification: recurrence of a Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Influenza (15): Canada (AB) swine origin, H1N2v

Influenza — Canada

PRO/AH/EDR> COVID-19 update (512): origins, testing regimens, WHO, global

COVID-19 -- Worldwide/UnknownWHO region (no. countries/territories):Total confirmed cases (new cases in last 24 hours) / Total deaths (new deaths in last 24 hours)---------------------------------------Western Pacific Region (19): 868 369 (6817) / 17 144 (46)European Region (61): 18 283 476 (236 050) / 407 968 (5925)South East Asia Region (10): 10 688 202 (53 082) / 162 778 (724)Eastern Mediterranean Region (22): 4 012 720 (37 599) / 101 446 (775)Region of the Americas (54): 25 958 213 (405 399) Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Yellow fever – Americas (12): Brazil (PR) monkeys

Yellow Fever -- BrazilHealth officials reported 3 confirmed epizootic yellow fever cases, resulting in the deaths of 3 monkeys. This took place in the municipality of Coronel Domingos Soares, in the southwest region of Parana state.Since the beginning of the current monitoring period in July [2020], no human case of the disease in Parana has been confirmed. However, the mortality of monkeys indicates the circulation of wild yellow fever virus in the respective region."Monkeys are our sentinels and Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Avian influenza (97): Germany, Poland, wild bird, poultry, H5N8, H5N5, OIE

Avian Influenza H5N8, Avian Influenza -- GermanyInformation received on [and dated] 27 Nov 2020 from Dr Dietrich Rassow, director for animal health and animal welfare, chief veterinary officer, directorate of Animal Health and Animal Welfare, Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Berlin, GermanySummaryReport type: immediate notificationDate of start of the event: 16 Nov 2020Date of confirmation of the event: 25 Nov 2020Reason for notification: recurrence of a listed diseaseDate of previous occurrence: Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> West Nile virus (30): Europe, ECDC update, Spain

West Nile Virus -- Worldwide/UnknownBetween 13 and 19 Nov 2020, EU Member States reported one new human case of WNV [West Nile virus] infection. The case was reported by the Netherlands from the region of Arnhem/Nijmegen. This region reported a locally acquired human case of WNV infection for the 1st time through TESSy. One death was reported by Greece. No human cases of WNV infection or deaths were reported from EU-neighbouring countries.Since the start of the 2020 transmission season, and as of Read more [...]

PRO/PL> Tomato spotted wilt virus, tomato – USA: (CA) loss of host resistance

Other Plant Disease -- United StatesA type of resistance-breaking tomato spotted wilt virus is continuing to spread through production areas of California. The virus has been an issue for growers for a number of decades, but the latest strain is particularly challenging. A single resistance gene that is used in almost all tomato varieties now is no longer adequately protecting from the virus. Since 2016 the issue has become even more of a problem. Tom Turini, Cooperative Extension Vegetable Advisor, Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> COVID-19 update (511): vaccine efficacy, China contaminated food, WHO, global

COVID-19 -- Worldwide/UnknownWHO region (no. countries/territories):Total confirmed cases (new cases in last 24 hours) / Total deaths (new deaths in last 24 hours)----------------------------------------------------------------------Western Pacific Region (19): 862 182 (5395) / 17 098 (64)European Region (61): 18 029 663 (243 912) / 401 656 (5160)South East Asia Region (10): 10 635 120 (54 160) / 162 054 (718)Eastern Mediterranean Region (22): 3 975 121 (37 710) /100 671 (870)Region of the Americas Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> COVID-19 update (510): animal, mink, Lithuania, Poland, 1st reports, France, OIE

COVID-19 -- LithuaniaLithuanian authorities say they have detected the presence of the new coronavirus in mink at a farm in the centre of the country. The positive tests were found in samples of 169 dead minks at the farm in Jonava district, according to Lithuania's State Food and Veterinary Service (SFVS).One person working at the farm has also tested positive for the coronavirus, the agency said."The results of the study show that the SARS-CoV-2 virus could have been transmitted to tissues by a Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Lumpy skin disease – Asia (02): Hong Kong, Myanmar, cattle, 1st report, OIE

Lumpy Skin Disease -- ChinaInformation received on 25 Nov 2020 from Dr Thomas Sit, Chief Veterinary Officer / Assistant Director (Inspection & Quarantine), Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government, Hong Kong, Hong Kong (SAR - PRC)Report type: immediate notificationDate of start of the event: 4 Oct 2020Date of confirmation of the event: 21 Nov 2020Report date: 24 Nov 2020Date submitted to OIE: 25 Nov 2020Reason for notification: 1st Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Equine herpesvirus – North America (09): USA (CA) horse

Equine Herpes Virus -- United StatesOn 18 Nov [2020], officials at the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) confirmed a Los Angeles County horse with the non-neuropathogenic strain of equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV). On 13 Nov [2020], the 14-year-old American Saddlebred gelding began showing clinical signs, including fever, urine dribbling, and inability to evacuate his bladder. He had been vaccinated and is reported as affected and alive.The gelding has no recent travel or show history Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Streptococcus zooepidemicus – USA (06): (IN) pigs

Strep -- United StatesThe 1st clue of an unusual situation was the high number of mortalities. Gascho estimated a capacity of about 1000 hogs at the site. About 500 head died in a week."If so many pigs are dying so fast, I initially wasn't thinking a pathogen...because in this country we don't have many diseases killing pigs so fast, and so many," Gascho explained.Then he explored the possibility of other "one-off stuff mentioned in vet school which you almost never actually see." One was a lightning Read more [...]

PRO/EDR> Malaria – France: diagnostic delay

Malaria -- FranceAmong a specific French population of travelers under strict epidemiological surveillance, from August to November 2020, we report a statistically significant increase in the incidence of severe malaria attacks (_Plasmodium falciparum_) compared with historical data (+167%).The causes of this increase are not an increase in the incidence of malaria attack (stable between 2019 and 2020), nor the observance of chemoprophylaxis (stable between 2019 and 2020), but the mean delay to diagnosis Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Undiagnosed skin disease – Senegal (02): chickenpox susp, comment

Chicken Pox — Senegal

PRO/AH/EDR> Bluetongue – Europe (13): Spain (NA) cattle, BTV-8, OIE

Bluetongue -- SpainInformation received on [and dated] 23 Nov 2020 from Dr. Valentin Almansa, Director General, Health of Agrarian Production, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Madrid, SpainSummaryReport type: Immediate notificationDate of start of the event: 8 Oct 2020Date of confirmation of the event: 20 Oct 2020Reason for notification: Recurrence of a listed diseaseDate of previous occurrence: 16 Nov 2010Manifestation of disease: Clinical diseaseCausal agent: Bluetongue Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Avian influenza (96): Iran (MK) HPAI, wild bird, H5N8, OIE

Avian Influenza H5N8 -- IranInformation received on [and dated] 23 Nov 2020 from Dr. Ali Safar Maken Ali, Head, Iran Veterinary Organization (IVO), Ministry of Jihad-e-Agriculture, Tehran, IranSummaryReport type: Immediate notificationDate of start of the event: 19 Nov 2020Date of confirmation of the event: 20 Nov 2020Reason for notification: Recurrence of a listed diseaseDate of previous occurrence: 4 Feb 2018Manifestation of disease: Clinical diseaseCausal agent: Highly pathogenic influenza A Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Yellow fever – Africa (22): Nigeria (EN)

Yellow Fever -- NigeriaDespite the fumigation of Ette, and Umuopu communities in Igbo-Eze North Local Government Area [LGA] of Enugu State against yellow fever by the state government and the ongoing immunisation against the disease at some local government areas in the state, the death toll has hit 133. About 57 victims lost their lives in Ette, and Umuopu communities initially before both the federal and state governments flooded the areas with yellow fever vaccines.In the last 2 weeks, health Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> COVID-19 update (509): oral shedding, South Korea prisons, WHO, global

COVID-19 -- South KoreaAbstract--------Limited knowledge about the contagiosity and case fatality rate of COVID-19 as well as the still enigmatic route of transmission have led to strict limitations of non-emergency health care especially in head and neck medicine and dentistry. There are theories that the oral cavity provides a favorable environment for SARS-CoV-2 entry and persistence which may be a risk for prolonged virus shedding. However, intraoral innate immune mechanisms provide antiviral Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Ross River virus – Australia (02): (QL)

Ross River Virus -- AustraliaSoutheast Queensland could see more mosquitoes this summer as cases of Ross River fever rise across southeast Queensland. Weather forecasters claim a La Nina weather event is likely to cause more rain over the coming months, which will create perfect conditions for more mozzie hatchlings.Brisbane City Council Opposition Leader Jared Cassidy said more needs to be done to stop the biting bugs. "What we're calling for are more resources, more bodies on the ground, and more Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Undiagnosed skin disease – Senegal: chickenpox susp, RFI

Undiagnosed -- SenegalThe mysterious disease which has afflicted hundreds of fishermen from different regions of Senegal seems to have an explanation, which is not toxic, and a long way from being viral. What could be the cause?The detailsA mysterious disease has appeared in recent days among fishermen in Thiaroye-sur-Mer, a Dakar suburb, and has spread to other localities in Senegal, triggering panic in all the fishing villages. While hundreds, even a thousand people suffer from attacks, in particular Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> E. coli EHEC – USA (07): O157

E. coli -- United StatesSince the last update on 28 Oct 2020, 16 ill people were added to this investigation.As of 19 Nov 2020, a total of 39 people infected with the outbreak strain of _E. coli_ O157:H7 have been reported from 18 states. State / Ill People------------------Arizona / 2California / 6Illinois / 2Indiana / 1Kansas / 4Michigan / 3Minnesota / 2Missouri / 3North Dakota / 4Ohio / 1Oregon / 1Pennsylvania / 2Tennessee / 2Texas / 1Utah / 1Washington / 1Wisconsin / Read more [...]

PRO/EDR> Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (08): Netherlands ex Togo

Cholera — Netherlands

PRO/AH/EDR> Canine distemper, wildlife – Russia: (Far East) tiger, conservation concern, vacc

Canine distemper -- RussiaGilbert M, Sulikhan N, Uphyrkina O, et al. Distemper, extinction, and vaccination of the Amur tiger. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2020: 202000153. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2000153117. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33229566; .The pathogen flow at the carnivore wildlife-domestic interface is a major conservation concern, especially where feral dogs are abundant. Documentation of outbreaks in wild carnivores due to exposure to cat and dog pathogens abound throughout the world. There have Read more [...]

PRO/EDR> Measles update (27): global surge

Measles -- Worldwide/UnknownThe coronavirus pandemic is thwarting the fight to eradicate measles as scientists warn outbreaks across the world have surged over the last 4 years.A report published by the World Health Organisation and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says between 2016 and 2020, cases shot up to 869 770.This is the most reported cases since 1996 and a rise of around a staggering 556 percent.Yet in 2016 the number of cases globally was 132 490 a drop from 853 479 in the Read more [...]

PRO/EDR> Measles update (26): Africa (South Sudan) WHO

Measles -- South SudanMeasles is a highly contagious, serious disease caused by a virus. It is normally passed through direct contact and through the air. The virus infects the respiratory tract, then spreads throughout the body. Measles is a human disease and is not known to occur in animals.--Communicated by:ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts[Because the population of 25 counties in the states is not given, it is difficult to know the percentage of the childhood population that will be covered by Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> COVID-19 update (508): quarantine, mutations, PPE, WHO, global

COVID-19 -- Malaysiavan Dorp L, Richard D, Tan CCS, et al. No evidence for increased transmissibility from recurrent mutations in SARS-CoV-2. Nat Commun 11, 5986 (2020). ]******[3] Malaysia: outbreak in PPE manufacturing plant, shortagesDate: Tue 24 Nov 2020Source: The Associated Press (AP) [edited]Malaysia's Top Glove Corp., the world's largest maker of rubber gloves, said Tuesday [24 Nov 2020] it expects a 2-to-4-week delay in deliveries after more than 2000 workers at its factories were Read more [...]

PRO/PL> Undiagnosed disease, cassava – Zambia: (NW)

Other Plant Disease -- ZambiaA suspected fungal disease has broken out in Manyinga district of North-Western province leaving several cassava fields destroyed. The disease has also affected some gardens.An area Agricultural Extension officer who made an on-spot check disclosed that the rotting of tubers and drying up of leaves are caused by [a] fungus suspected to have been carried off from the remains of uprooted indigenous trees that were in the fields before planting cassava.He revealed that to Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> COVID-19 update (507): animal, mink, Netherlands spread, Italy control

COVID-19 -- NetherlandsThe number of mink farms [in the Netherlands] where the coronavirus has been discovered has risen to 70. At a mink farm in Putten, one of the animals was also found to be infected with the virus this week, the Ministries of Health and Agriculture report. The animals are killed. The company has about 3000 mother animals.A letter to Parliament [see commentary] stated that the samples were examined by the Animal Health Service (GD) last Thursday [19 Nov 2020] in the context of Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> COVID-19 update (506): Argentina (BA, SE) animal, cat, dog, OIE

COVID-19 -- ArgentinaInformation received on [and dated] 18 Nov 2020 from from Dra. Ximena Melon, Directora Nacional de Sanidad Animal, Servicio Nacional de Sanidad y Calidad Agroalimentaria (SENASA), Ministerio de Agricultura; Ganaderia y Pesca, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires, ArgentinaSummaryReport type: immediate notification (final report)Date of start of the event: 1 Sep 2020Date of confirmation of the event: 6 Sep 2020Date event resolved: 16 Nov 2020Reason for notification: emerging Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Rocky Mountain spotted fever – USA (02): tick host preference and temperature

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever -- United StatesDisease-carrying ticks that normally prefer dogs may start to prefer the blood of humans as climate change cranks up the heat around the world, according to new research presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH).Experiments revealed that brown dog ticks [_Rhipicephalus sanguineus_], which can transmit the life-threatening Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) and normally prefer to feed on dogs, become Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Avian influenza (95): UK, wild bird, HPAI H5N8

Avian Influenza H5N8 -- United KingdomIt has been confirmed that the strain of bird flu found in a dead goose in Weymouth is highly pathogenic -- leading to a warning for bird keepers to remain alert for signs of disease to protect their flocks.The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) has also confirmed that a swan has tested positive for the H5N8 strain of avian influenza in Poole, although it is not yet known whether the strain is highly infectious.The wild goose was found Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> COVID-19 update (505): Europe restrictions, reinfection, WHO, global

COVID-19 -- Worldwide/UnknownCases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reinfection have been reported in Hong Kong, Belgium, the Netherlands, and the USA.[1,2,3,4] Here we report the 1st confirmed case of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection in Ecuador and South America. For full methodological details, see the appendix (pp 1, 2 [available at the source URL above]).On [12 May 2020], a 46-year-old man presented in Quito, Ecuador, with 3 days of intense headache and drowsiness. On [16 Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Chapare virus – Bolivia: (LP) person-to-person transmission, 2019

Other Human Disease -- BoliviaResearchers determined that Chapare virus likely spread from person to person during a deadly outbreak in Bolivia, according to findings presented at the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Annual Meeting.Chapare virus belongs to a family of viruses known as arenaviruses, which include pathogens such as Lassa and Machupo viruses. Arenaviruses are usually spread via contact with an infected rodent or its feces, according to the CDC.Researchers found that Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Yellow fever – Africa (21): Nigeria (BE)

Yellow Fever -- NigeriaOver 20 people have died as a deadly yellow fever outbreak continues to ravage some part Benue State.The Supervisory Commissioner of the Ministry of Health, Dr. Godwin Eyiwona, yesterday [23 Nov 2020] said yellow fever, which killed 20 people in Ogbadibo Local Government Area of the state, has spread to 2 other council areas. Eyiwona stated this during the flag-off of vaccination against the disease at the Ibrahim Babangida Square (IBB) in Makurdi, the state capital.The supervisory Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Rabies (31): Africa (Liberia) dog, human exp, OIE

Rabies -- LiberiaInformation received on [and dated] 19 Nov 2020 from Dr Joseph RN Anderson, Director of Livestock/Veterinary Services, Animal Health Services, Ministry of Agriculture, Monrovia, LiberiaReport type: immediate notificationDate of start of the event: 17 Nov 2020Date of confirmation of the event: 18 Nov 2020Reason for notification: 1st occurrence of a listed diseaseManifestation of disease: clinical diseaseCausal agent: rabies virusSerotype: RABVNature of diagnosis: laboratory Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Avian influenza (94): Croatia (KK) poultry HPAI H5N8, OIE

Avian Influenza H5N8 -- CroatiaInformation received on [and dated] 21 Nov 2020 from Dr Tatjana Karacic, Assistant Minister, Chief Veterinary Officer, Veterinary Services, Ministry of Agriculture, Zagreb, CroatiaSummaryReport type: immediate notificationDate of start of the event: 17 Nov 2020Date of confirmation of the event: 21 Nov 2020Reason for notification: recurrence of a listed diseaseDate of previous occurrence: 7 Jun 2017Manifestation of disease: clinical diseaseCausal agent: highly pathogenic Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Avian influenza (93): Italy (LM) poultry, LPAI H5, OIE

Avian Influenza -- ItalyInformation received on [and dated] 20 Nov 2020 from Dr Davide Lecchini, Chief Veterinary Officer, Directorate General for Veterinary Health and Veterinary Medicinal Products (DGSAF), Ministry of Health, Rome, ItalyReport type: immediate notificationDate of start of the event: 17 Nov 2020Date of confirmation of the event: 18 Nov 2020Reason for notification: reoccurrence of a listed diseaseDate of previous occurrence: 20 Jun 2020Manifestation of disease: sub-clinical Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> COVID-19 update (504): vaccine efficacy, Africa, WHO, global

COVID-19 -- Worldwide/Unknown"NIAID and Okairos (a company later acquired by GSK) developed an Ebola vaccine candidate (now licensed to the Sabin Vaccine Institute) that uses a chimpanzee adenovirus (cAd3) vector, or carrier, to deliver Ebola genetic material. The gene inserts express an Ebola virus protein designed to prompt the human body to make an immune response."The cAd3-EBO Z vaccine (designed to protect against the Ebola Zaire virus species) proved to be safe and immunogenic when evaluated Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Skin ulceration – Senegal (02): (DK, TH) fisherman, RFI

Other Human Disease -- SenegalCould this be a jelly fish?--Communicated by:Susan Baekeland [ProMED-mail thanks Susan Baekeland for her question.It would be unusual for a poisonerous jelly fish or several jelly fish to affect so many at the same time. The so called "box jellyfish" or "class Cubozoa" are cnidarian invertebrates distinguished by their cube-shaped medusae, WikiPedia writes (). Although the notoriously dangerous species of box jellyfish are largely restricted to the tropical Read more [...]