Archive for Global Disease Alerts

PRO/PL> Virus diseases, multiple crops: global impact

Other Plant Disease -- Worldwide/UnknownViruses constitute a major cause of plant disease and have an estimated economic impact of over USD 30 billion annually. They constitute almost 50% of pathogens responsible for emerging and reemerging plant diseases worldwide. Virus disease outbreaks threaten cultivated plants not only by impairing their growth and vigor, thereby diminishing gross yields, but also by spoiling produce quality and thus decreasing marketable yields. Such crop losses occur globally. Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Lumpy skin disease – India (05): (OR) cattle, 1st rep, OIE

Lumpy Skin Disease -- IndiaInformation received on [and dated] 18 Nov 2019 from Dr Atul Chaturvedi, Secretary, Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying, Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying, New Delhi, IndiaSummary:Report type: immediate notificationDate of start of the event: 12 Aug 2019Date of confirmation of the event: 16 Nov 2019Report date: 18 Nov 2019Date submitted to OIE: 18 Nov 2019Reason for notification: 1st occurrence of a listed disease in the countryCausal agent: Lumpy Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Vesicular stomatitis – USA (20): horses

Vesicular Stomatitis -- United StatesIn its [31 Oct 2019], Situation Report, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) confirmed 7 new vesicular stomatitis viruses (VSV)-affected premises: 5 confirmed positive and 2 suspected. Affected states include:Colorado: 3 new confirmed positive (1 in Eagle County and 2 in Garfield County) and 1 new suspect (Fremont County);Nebraska: 1 new confirmed positive in Garden County, which is a newly infected Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Mycoplasma bovis – New Zealand (03): (Wairarapa) livestock

Other Animal Disease -- New ZealandA mixed sheep and beef farm in South Wairarapa was identified with cases of _M. bovis_ in August [2019], the 4th and most recent property in the region to be identified with the disease.A total of $479 159 has been paid out to 14 claimants around the region impacted by biosecurity measures to stamp out the _Mycoplasma bovis_ cattle disease since the disease was 1st found in the region in June last year [2018].The latest property was still being treated as an active Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Facial eczema – New Zealand: cattle

Chronic/Non-Infectious Disease -- New ZealandDairy facial eczema (FE) is caused by a fungus growing on dead and dying matter in the pasture which releases a spore with toxins in it. It is most likely to grow and produce spores in warm and humid conditions. Zinc is currently the main way of preventing the disease.Trial work done in 2014 examining zinc concentrations in the blood of 1200 cattle from over 100 farms in the North Island showed approximately 70 per cent of cattle did not have enough zinc Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> African swine fever – Europe (51): Poland (LB) wild boar, OIE

African Swine Fever -- PolandInformation received on [and dated] 15 Nov 2019 from Dr Pawel Niemczuk, Chief Veterinary Officer, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, POL Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Warsaw, PolandSummaryReport type: immediate notificationDate of start of the event: 4 Nov 2019Date of confirmation of the event: 14 Nov 2019Report date: 15 Nov 2019Date submitted to OIE: 15 Nov 2019Reason for notification: 1st occurrence of a listed diseaseManifestation of disease: Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Dengue/DHF update (22): Americas

Dengue -- Worldwide/UnknownIn the Region of the Americas, between epidemiological week (EW) 1 and EW 42 of 2019 [1 Jan-18 Oct 2019], a total of 2 733 635 cases of dengue (280 cases per 100 000 population) have been reported, including 1206 deaths. Of the total cases, 1 217 196 (44.5%) were laboratory-confirmed and 22 127 (0.8%) were classified as severe dengue. The reported case-fatality rate was 0.044%.The number of cases reported in 2019 as of EW 42 (2 733 635) is the largest recorded in the history Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Cryptosporidiosis – Sweden (02): (multi-region) background

Cryptosporidium -- SwedenThe incidence of cryptosporidiosis in Scandinavia has increased dramatically in recent years. As shown in the graph [at the URL below], rates in Sweden per 100 000 population are approximately twice those reported in the United States -- and almost 4-fold those reported in the European Region as a whole [1-3].See graph at:References----------1. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool: [tutorial]2. Berger S. Infectious Diseases of Sweden,2019. 416 pages , 143 graphs , 1,146 Read more [...]

PRO/PL> Pospiviroids, tomato – Ghana, Mali: rasta disease

Other Plant Disease -- GhanaIn Ghana, 'rasta' is a virus-like disease of unknown etiology affecting tomato (_Solanum lycopersicum_) plants. Symptoms include stunting; epinasty, crumpling, and chlorosis of leaves; and necrosis of leaf veins, petioles and stems.Leaf samples with rasta symptoms were collected from 17 commercial tomato fields in Ghana in October 2012 and were shown to be infected with _Potato spindle tuber viroid_ (_Pospiviroid_, PSTVd -- EPPO A2 List) and _Tomato apical stunt viroid_ Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> E. coli EHEC – USA (24): (MD) O157, prepackaged salad

E. coli -- United StatesThe Maryland Department of Health says 7 confirmed cases of _E. coli_ infections have been linked to pre-packaged Caesar salads. According to the department of health, the infections were identified in people who'd eaten Ready Pac Bistro Bowl Chicken Caesar Salad purchased at Sam's Club stores in Maryland. One person was hospitalized as a result of the _E. coli_ O157 infection. No deaths have been linked to it.The department noted that these salads are sold at a number of Read more [...]

PRO/PL> Dead flower bud disease, pear – Netherlands: cause

Other Plant Disease -- NetherlandsThe occurrence of dead dormant flower buds is a common phenomenon of economic importance in the major pear production areas of Europe. Thus far, the cause of dead flower buds disease remained unknown. Several causes have been proposed, including insufficient tree chilling, unmet dormancy requirements, incompatibility between scion and cultivar, but also various biotic stress agents such as pathogens and pests. In this study, we tested the relationship between reduction Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Ebola update (109): Congo DR (NK, IT) cases, WHO, summaries, response, vaccine

Ebola -- DR Congo- The General Coordinator for the Ebola Response to the Ebola Virus Disease, Prof Steve Ahuka Mundeke, accompanied by a joint team of some members of the response and the consortium (National Institute of Biomedical Research-INRB, MSF / France and the London School), met this Wed 13 Nov 2019 the Vice President of the North Kivu Provincial Assembly, the Honorable Jean-Paul Lumbulumbu, with whom they discussed the 2nd Ebola vaccine called Johnson & Johnson.- The teacher Steve Ahuka Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Powassan virus encephalitis – USA (07): (NY) with 2 other pathogens

Encephalitis -- United StatesAbstract_Ixodes scapularis_ is responsible for transmission of _Borrelia burgdorferi_, _B. miyamotoi_, _Babesia microti_, _Anaplasma phagocytophilum_ and Powassan virus to humans. We present a case of an 87-year-old man who presented with fever and altered mental status. Initial workup revealed haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia, mild hepatitis and acute kidney injury. Patient tested positive for _B. burgdorferi_ and _Babesia microti_, and was started on doxycycline, Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Plague – China (02): (NM) bubonic

Plague -- ChinaChina's Inner Mongolia reported a fresh, confirmed case of bubonic plague on Sun 17 Nov 2019, despite an earlier declaration by the country's health officials that the risk of an outbreak was minimal.The health commission of the autonomous region said a 55-year-old man was diagnosed with the disease after he ate wild rabbit meat on 5 Nov 2019. Bubonic plague is the most common form of plague globally and can advance and spread to the lungs, which is a more severe type called pneumonic Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Anthrax – Zimbabwe (08): (MI) cattle

Anthrax -- ZimbabweAt least 5 cattle have died in Gokwe North in the past week due to an outbreak of anthrax, the Veterinary Services Department has said. This comes barely a month after the same area was hit by the same disease which was later contained by the department.In an interview, Midlands Provincial Veterinary Officer Dr. Martin Sibanda said the department will be moving vaccines to the area to deal with the outbreak. "We have another focal outbreak this week in Gokwe North in areas close Read more [...]

PRO/EDR> Hepatitis A – USA (37): CDC

Hepatitis A -- United StatesState / Case total / Hospitalizations n (%) / Deaths / Outbreak start date / Current through date / Av. weekly cases since last postTotal / 28 111 / 16 986 (60%) / 284 / -- / 8 Nov 2019 / 313States with an ongoing outbreak-------------------------------Alabama / 163 / 90 (55%) / NR / 1 Sep 2018 / 2 Oct 2019 / -- Arizona / 595 / 470 (79%) / 8 / 1 Nov 2018 / 7 Nov 2019 / 3 Arkansas / 437 / 227 (52%) / 3 / 7 Feb 2018 / 8 Nov 2019 / 2 Colorado / 238 / 173 (73%) / 2 / 1 Oct Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> African swine fever – Europe (50): Poland (LB) wild boar, spread

African Swine Fever -- PolandThe State Veterinary Institute in Pulawy confirmed the occurrence of the 2nd case of African swine fever (ASF) in wild boars in the Lubuskie province [voivodship], in the Nowa Sol county, informed the Chief Veterinary Officer."The positive result concerns the corpse of a fallen wild boar found within the contaminated zone designated by the Regulation of the Lubuskie Voivode on combating African swine fever (ASF) in pigs and wild boars in the Nowa Sol and Wschowa counties", Read more [...]

PRO/EDR> Measles update (70)

Measles -- Worldwide/UnknownSamoa has closed all schools and cracked down on public gatherings as it enters a state of emergency over the deadly measles outbreak spreading across the Pacific islands.The island state of just 200 000, halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand, announced the state of emergency on [Sat 16 Nov 2019] after declaring a measles epidemic late in October 2019, when the 1st deaths were reported.Since then, at least 6 deaths, mostly infants under the age of 2, have been linked Read more [...]

PRO/EDR> Dengue/DHF update (21): Asia, Pacific, Africa, Europe, vaccine

Dengue -- Sri LankaNearly 50 percent of the world's population is considered at risk of infection with dengue virus (DENV), a mosquito-borne RNA virus that can potentially cause lethal disease. The efficacy of currently approved vaccines is poor in people who have not previously encountered DENV. Afroz et al. found that pretreatment of mice with the amino acid starvation mimetic halofuginone (HF) increased the adaptive immune response to a DENV vaccine. Known to activate the nutrient-sensing kinase Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Cryptosporidiosis – Sweden: (multi-region)

Cryptosporidium -- SwedenThe Public Health Agency of Sweden is investigating an increase in notified cases of infection with _Cryptosporidium_.During the autumn and in particular during weeks 44 and 45 [28 Oct-8 Nov 2019], an increase in the number of reported cases of cryptosporidiosis, infected in Sweden, was noted. Half of the regions in Sweden have reported cases in all age groups but mostly in adults. Most cases have been seen in the Stockholm region.The Agency has initiated an outbreak investigation Read more [...]

PRO/EDR> Botulism, cosmetic use – Taiwan

Botulism -- ChinaYang Chen-chang, director of clinical toxicology and occupational medicine at Taipei Veterans General Hospital, spoke at a forum in Taipei yesterday, 16 Nov 2019, about intoxication caused by Botox injections. The nation's 1st case of poisoning caused by a botulinum toxin injection was reported by toxicologist Yang Chen-chang at a conference at Taipei Veterans General Hospital (TVGH).Yang, TVGH clinical toxicology and occupational medicine department director, disclosed the case Read more [...]

PRO/EDR> Gastroenteritis – USA: (CO) schools, norovirus susp.

Norovirus -- United StatesA 2nd school in Palisade is getting cleaned over the weekend after several students were sick at home on Fri 15 Nov 2019, the Daily Sentinel reports.Eight percent of Mount Garfield Middle School students were home with flu-like symptoms, District 51 spokeswoman Emily Shockley said. Some had acute-onset vomiting, which lasted between 12 and 24 hours. The health department does not know what the illness is but said it is behaving like a virus.Palisade High School closed early Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> E. coli EHEC – USA (23): (WI)

E. coli -- United StatesBetween 13 and 15 Nov 2019, the Wisconsin Division of Public Health (DPH) Communicable Diseases Epidemiology Section has observed a significant increase in the number of reported cases of _Escherichia coli_ (_E. coli_) O157 infection. We are treating this as an outbreak. Cases have been reported from numerous jurisdictions within Wisconsin and have not been isolated to a single region. One associated case of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) has also been reported. The investigation Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Psittacosis – USA: (VA, GA) chicken slaughter plants, 2018

Psittacosis -- United StatesPsittacosis results from inhalation of aerosolized droppings or respiratory secretions of birds infected with _Chlamydia psittaci_. During 2008-2017, a total of 60 cases of psittacosis, a nationally notifiable disease in the United States, were reported to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System ().The most common source of psittacosis in the USA is believed to be pet psittacine birds (e.g., parrots, cockatoos). The most recent large poultry-associated outbreaks Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> African swine fever – Asia (91): domestic, wild, spread, control, FAO

African Swine Fever -- Worldwide/UnknownThe following information includes data on African swine fever (ASF) in Asia, selectively extracted from the above, recent weekly FAO update.1. Affected Provinces:- China: Anhui, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shanxi, Yunnan, Hunan and Guizhou, Hubei, Jiangxi, Fujian, Sichuan, Shaanxi, Qinghai, Guangdong, Gansu, Shandong and Hainan Provinces, Tianjin, Chongqing, Shanghai and Beijing Municipalities, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia Hui, Guangxi Read more [...]

PRO/EDR> Botulism – USA (08): (NM) wound, injection drug related

Botulism -- United StatesNew Mexico health officials are investigating the 3rd suspected case of botulism in 2019. The department said Friday [15 Nov 2019] that a patient hospitalized in Albuquerque is believed to have wound botulism, a rare illness that can lead to muscle paralysis and death if left untreated. Botulism was confirmed in people hospitalized in May and October [2019]. The health department says all 3 cases are linked to the use of injection drugs.Botulism is caused by a nerve toxin Read more [...]

PRO/EDR> Scombroid fish poisoning – USA (04): Imported Vietnamese tuna

Food-related toxin -- United States"Histamine poisoning results from the consumption of foods, typically certain types of fish and cheeses that contain unusually high levels of histamine. Spoiled fish of the families Scombridae and Scomberesocidae (such as, tuna, mackerel, bonito) are commonly implicated in incidents of histamine poisoning, which leads to the common usage of the term, "scombroid fish poisoning," to describe this illness. However, certain non-scombroid fish, most notably mahi-mahi, Read more [...]

PRO/AH> Bluetongue – India: (KA) sheep, untyped

Bluetongue -- IndiaAccording to the Chitradurga district Department of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Services, nearly 5% of the total sheep in the district are suffering from the deadly bluetongue disease. Chitradurga is one of the largest sheep-rearing districts in the state with more than 14 lakh [1.4 million] sheep.The disease is caused by the biting of _Culicoides_ midges, and it damages the immune system, resulting in slow death.Deputy director, Department of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> African swine fever – Europe (49): Poland (LB) wild boar

African Swine Fever -- PolandThe Polish authorities have confirmed that African swine fever (ASF) has been found in a dead wild boar at 85 km (about 53 mi) from the border with Germany. The case positive for ASF concerned a wild boar that was found on [4 Nov 2019] after having been killed in a road accident in Lubuskie voivodship. This province borders to Germany in the west.The Polish Chief Veterinary Inspection broke the news on Thursday [14 Nov 2019]. The animal had been tested at the Polish State Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> African swine fever – Europe (48): Moldova (HI) domestic, spread, OIE

African Swine Fever -- MoldovaInformation received on [and dated] 14 Nov 2019 from Dr. Vitalie Caraus, Head of the Animal Health and Welfare Department, Animal Health and Welfare Department, National Food Safety Agency of the Republic of Moldova, Chisinau, MoldovaSummaryReport type: Immediate notificationDate of start of the event: 11 Nov 2019Date of confirmation of the event: 12 Nov 2019Reason for notification: Recurrence of a listed diseaseDate of previous occurrence: November 2019Manifestation Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Tuberculosis – USA (02): (WA) zoo elephant, latent TB in elephant handlers

Tuberculosis -- United StatesTwo elephants at Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium have tested positive for tuberculosis, zoo officials announced Wednesday [13 Nov 2019].Tuberculosis is an infectious disease affecting the lungs, and there is evidence it can be passed from some animals, including elephants, to humans.That's what officials believed happened when staff members tested positive with a latent, or inactive, tuberculosis infection in September [2019]. [See ProMED-mail post Tuberculosis - USA: Read more [...]

PRO/EDR> Poliomyelitis update (90): global, Pakistan, summary status WPV, cVDPV

Polio -- PakistanNew wild poliovirus isolates reported this week:AFP cases: 2Environment: 3Others: 0New cVDPV isolates reported this week:AFP cases: 19Environment: 10Others: 5Headlines- Besides acute flaccid paralysis [AFP] surveillance and environmental surveillance, how else do disease surveillance officers track the poliovirus in populated cities, hard-to-reach geographical areas, and conflict zones? [See for details.]Summary of new viruses this week (AFP cases and ES Read more [...]

PRO/EDR> Vaping related illness – Europe: (Belgium) fatal

Respiratory Illness -- BelgiumThis debate has extra resonance in the UK, where the government has embraced e-cigarettes as a way to wean people off tobacco.There, officials say the worst thing people could do is go back to regular cigarettes out of fear vapes could land them in the hospital with a major lung malfunction. "You're terrifying people who are benefiting from vaping by not smoking," said Clive Bates, a former chief of the UK charity Action on Smoking and Health (ASH) and a strong defender Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> West Nile virus (51): Europe (France) horse, OIE

West Nile Virus -- FranceWest Nile fever, FranceInformation received on [and dated] 13 Nov 2019 from Dr Loic Evain, directeur general adjoint, CVO, Direction generale de l'alimentation, Ministere de l'Agriculture et de l'Alimentation, Paris, FranceSummaryReport type: follow-up report no. 6Date of start of the event: 31 Aug 2019Date of confirmation of the event: 10 Sep 2019Report date: 13 Nov 2019Date submitted to OIE: 13 Nov 2019Reason for notification: recurrence of a listed diseaseDate of Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> E coli EHEC – USA (22): (WI) O157, possible salad source, RFI

E. coli — United States

PRO/EDR> Amebic meningoencephalitis, primary – Pakistan (05): (SD)

Amoeba -- Pakistan[_Naegleria fowleri_] has claimed another life in Karachi on [Mon 11 Nov 2019]. This was the 16th death reported in the ongoing year [2019] because of the disease. According to details, a 28-year-old resident of New Karachi area was brought to a private clinic 4 days ago where he died of the disease during treatment.According to the researchers, _Naegleria_ has a fatality rate of more than 98%. Infections can happen when contaminated water enters the body through the nose. It cannot Read more [...]

PRO/EDR> Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease – Canada: (NB) RFI

CJD -- Canada1. S-Juan P, Ward HJT De Silva R, et al. Ophthalmic surgery and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Br J Ophthalmol. 2004; 88(4): 446-9; 2. Collins S, Law MG, Fletcher A, et al. Surgical treatment and risk of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a case-control study. Lancet. 1999; 353(9154): 693-7; 3. UK National Health Service. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. 2018; 4. US National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Fact Sheet. 2019;HealthMap/ProMED-mail map of Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Rabies (51): Americas (Mexico) dog transmitted rabies eradicated

Rabies -- MexicoIn order to achieve elimination, the country has implemented a national strategy for the control and elimination of rabies. This includes free, mass vaccination campaigns for dogs, that have taken place since the 1990's with more than 80 percent coverage; continuous and effective surveillance; public awareness-raising campaigns; timely diagnosis; and the availability of post-exposure prophylaxis in the country's public health services.As a result, the country went from registering Read more [...]

PRO/PL> Wart disease, potato – Georgia: pathotype

Other Plant Disease -- United StatesPotato wart disease caused by _Synchytrium endobioticum_ (EPPO A2 List) was 1st detected on potato in home gardens in 2009-2013 in Khulo district. In 2016-2018, more outbreaks were detected in different home gardens in northern Georgia. Isolates of _S. endobioticum_ were tested to identify the pathotype. The pathotype found in Georgia is not known in Europe. This pathotype resembles pathotype 38, which was detected in the non‐European part of Turkey.[Original Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Anthrax – India (10): (OR) cattle, human

Anthrax -- IndiaAnthrax outbreak has been reported in Dasmantpur block after 2 tribal [members] of S Dandabad were found to be affected by the disease. Five days back, some tribal [members] consumed beef in a function, following which abscesses were found among 2 of them.On Monday [11 Nov 2019], they were taken to Damantpur CHC, where the doctors suspected that the 2 have contracted the disease [anthrax]. When the duo [were] sent to Koraput Medical College and Hospital, the doctors there confirmed Read more [...]