Archive for Global Disease Alerts

PRO/AH/EDR> Leishmania: infected dogs more attractive to sandflies

Leishmaniasis -- Worldwide/UnknownDogs infected with the _Leishmania_ parasite smell more attractive to female sand flies than males, say researchers.The study published in PLOS Pathogens [see reference below] is led by Professor Gordon Hamilton of Lancaster University.In Brazil, the parasite _L. infantum_ is transmitted by the bite of infected female _Lutzomyia longipalpis_ sand flies.Globally over 350 million people are at risk of leishmaniasis, with up to 300 000 new cases annually. In Brazil Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Bluetongue – Europe (02): France, BTV-8, 2015, research, frozen bov semen susp

Bluetongue -- FranceThe mechanisms underlying virus emergence are rarely well understood, making the appearance of outbreaks largely unpredictable. Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8), an arthropod-borne virus of ruminants, emerged in livestock in northern Europe in 2006, spreading to most European countries by 2009 and causing losses of billions of euros. Although the outbreak was successfully controlled through vaccination by early 2010, puzzlingly, a closely related BTV-8 strain re-emerged in Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> COVID-19 update (145): animal, Italy, mink, OIE

COVID-19 -- ItalySummaryReport type: immediate notificationDate of start of the event: 18 Mar 2021Date of confirmation of the event: 6 Apr 2021Report date: 22 Apr 2021Reason for notification: emerging diseaseMorbidity: 0.59%Mortality: -Zoonotic potential: noCausal agent: SARS-CoV-2This event pertains a defined zone within the country.New outbreaks (1)Total outbreaks: 1Outbreak location: Villa del Conte, Padua, VenetoDate of start of the outbreak: 18 Mar 2021Epidemiological unit: Read more [...]

PRO/EDR> Hand, foot & mouth disease update (03): Australia (WA)

Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease -- AustraliaSymptoms of HFMD vary from person to person. Some people may experience small white blisters on their palms, the soles of their feet, and in their mouth, with a bit of inflammation around the blisters. This may lead to a sore mouth and throat, dehydration, and a poor appetite.Alternatively, a red skin rash with a brown scale on it could appear on a person's arms, hands, legs, feet, and around the mouth.The trunk area usually remains clear, according to the Read more [...]

PRO/EDR> Gastroenteritis – Bangladesh: (BA) RFI

Gastroenteritis -- BangladeshThe diarrhea outbreak in the Barisal division has turned severe, with 8 deaths and thousands hospitalized across 6 districts. Currently, 18 of the 40 upazilas [formerly called thanas, administrative regions] under 6 districts of Barisal division are suffering from a diarrhea crisis.Bhola faced the brunt of the crisis, with the district witnessing 8090 hospital admissions from the beginning of 2021 until Wednesday [21 Apr 2021]. The number was 4252 in the last month [March Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> COVID-19 update (144): India, J&J vaccine, WHO, global

COVID-19 -- Worldwide/UnknownWHO region (no. countries/territories):Total confirmed cases (new cases in last 24 hours) / Total deaths (new deaths in last 24 hours)-----------------------------------Western Pacific Region (19): 2 258 194 (33 357) / 35 383 (278)European Region (61): 49 820 616 (230 943) / 1 046 516 (4288)South East Asia Region (10): 18 562 170 (308 892) / 244 035 (2343)Eastern Mediterranean Region (22): 8 609 860 (57 889) / 173 334 (942)Region of the Americas (54): 60 062 728 (155 Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Dengue/DHF update (02): Americas

Dengue -- Worldwide/UnknownCases by Country / Week updated / Serotype / Total / Confirmed / Severe / DeathsNorth AmericaUSA / 14 [w/e 10 Apr 2021] / D? / 9 / 9 / 0 / 0Central America and MexicoCosta Rica / 13 [w/e 3 Apr 2021] / D1,2 / 901 / - / 1 / 0El Salvador / 13 [w/e 3 Apr 2020] / D? / 782 / 0 / 0 / 0Guatemala / 6 [w/e 13 Feb 2021] / D2,3 / 191 / 10 / 1 / 1Honduras / 10 [w/e 13 Mar 2021] / D? / 1926 / - / 82 / -Mexico / 14 [w/e 10 Apr 2021] / D1,2,3,4 / 4255 / 300 / 26 / 1Nicaragua / 14 [w/e Read more [...]

PRO/PL> Blast disease, rice – Bangladesh: (KH)

Other Plant Disease -- BangladeshRice farmers have been shattered by blast disease in Jashore district [Khulna division], like in previous years. Blast disease [occurred] just before the ripening of paddy. [Many] farmers have been affected by cultivating BRRI-28 and Miniket rice [varieties].Even after applying various types of pesticides, the farmers are not getting any remedy. They are being forced to cut raw paddy. [They] complained that no advice from the agriculture office was available at the Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Foot & mouth disease – Syria: (LA) goat, spread, RFI

Foot and Mouth -- SyriaThe Director of Agriculture in Latakia, Munther Khairbek, confirmed to Al-Watan that there are suspected foci of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) among herds of goats in Ma'areen village. He indicated that the lesions are mild to moderate and the deaths are limited to a number of newborns in a (total village) herd ranging between 500 and 700 heads.Khairbek added that after receiving several complaints regarding deaths from herds of goats in the aforementioned village, a technical Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Hantavirus – Americas (04): USA (NM)

Hantavirus -- United StatesHealth officials are reporting the Navajo Nation's 1st case this year [2021] of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, a rare but potentially fatal disease spread by infected rodent droppings.The tribal health department said the case was confirmed in McKinley County in northwestern New Mexico, but it wasn't known how the person contracted hantavirus.Hantavirus typically is reported in spring and summer, often due to exposures that occur when people are near mouse droppings in Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> COVID-19 update (143): questions, VITT, ECMO, obesity, WHO, global

COVID-19 -- Worldwide/UnknownBackground: SARS-CoV-2 vaccine ChAdOx1 nCov-19 rarely causes vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) that -- like autoimmune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia -- is mediated by platelet-activating anti-platelet factor 4 (PF4) antibodies.Methods: We investigated vaccine, PF4, and VITT patient-derived anti-PF4 antibody interactions using dynamic light scattering, 3D-super-resolution microscopy, and electron microscopy. Mass spectrometry was used to analyze Read more [...]

PRO/EDR> Chikungunya (02): Americas, Africa

Chikungunya -- Worldwide/UnknownSaint-Herblain-based Valneva SE announced on 12 Apr 2021 that it had completed recruitment for the pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial of its single-shot chikungunya vaccine candidate, VLA1553.A total of 4131 adults aged 18 or above have been recruited across 44 sites in the USA for the VLA1553-301 trial, which was launched in September 2020. Participants will be followed for 6 months in the pivotal trial. If the trial results are positive, the trial is expected to support Read more [...]

PRO/EDR> Trachoma – Gambia: WHO, eliminated as a public health problem

Trachoma -- GambiaThe World Health Organization (WHO) has validated Gambia for having eliminated trachoma as a public health problem, making it the 2nd country in WHO's African Region to achieve this milestone."This is a great step towards the 2030 goals set by the recently launched 2021-2030 road map for neglected tropical diseases," said Dr. Ren Minghui, WHO Assistant Director-General for Universal Health Coverage/Communicable and Noncommunicable Diseases. "Gambia has become the 2nd country this Read more [...]

PRO/ALL> New in IJID (04): April 2021

Not Yet Classified -- Worldwide/UnknownDracunculiasis X in Vietnam: Emerging public health threat or exotic gem?Martin P. Grobusch, T. HanscheidIJID 2021:105:416-417Coronavirus (COVID-19) collection---------------------------------Reviews-------The effect of probiotics on respiratory tract infection with special emphasis on COVID-19: Systemic review 2010-20.Atieh Darbandi, Arezoo Asadi, Roya Ghanavati, et al.IJID 2021:105:91-104Meta-analysis of cardiac markers for predictive factors on severity and Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Salmonellosis, st Agbeni – Norway: imported dried fruit mix, 2018-19

Salmonella -- NorwayA dried fruit mix linked to an outbreak of salmonellosis in Norway contained products from South East Asia and Africa, according to researchers. From the end of 2018 to mid-March 2019, 56 people fell ill and 21 were hospitalized but no deaths were recorded. "The outbreak was characterized by an unusual, severe clinical presentation with systemic infections seen in 7, urinary tract infections in 10, and hospitalization in 21 of the 56 cases," said researchers in the journal Eurosurveillance Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Rabbit hemorrhagic disease – USA (05): (OR) feral rabbit, alert

Other Animal Disease -- United StatesThe USDA Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory has confirmed rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) in a feral domestic rabbit collected in La Pine, Oregon, on [9 Apr 2021]. While the virus is highly contagious among rabbit populations and can spread through contact with infected rabbits, it poses no human health risk. The virus is only known to infect rabbits and hares.This confirmation comes a few weeks after the same virus, RHDV2, was found in a feral domestic Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Inf hypodermal & hematopoietic necrosis – Colombia: (BL) shrimp, 1st rep, OIE

Other Animal Disease -- ColombiaSummaryReport type: Immediate notificationStarted: 19 Jan 2021Confirmed: 12 Apr 2021Reported: 17 Apr 2021Reason for notification: 1st occurrence in the countryCausal agent: Hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virusNature of diagnosis: clinical, laboratoryThis event pertains to a defined zone within the country.New outbreaks (1)Outbreak location 1: Covado Island, Cartagena de Indias, BolivarStarted: 19 Jan 2021Epidemiological unit: farmAffected animals:Species / Read more [...]

PRO/EDR> Scombroid fish poisoning – Europe: Sweden ex Viet Nam, tuna

Poisoning -- Sweden"Abstract--------"Histamine poisoning results from the consumption of foods, typically certain types of fish and cheeses that contain unusually high levels of histamine. Spoiled fish of the families Scombridae and Scomberesocidae (such as tuna, mackerel, bonito) are commonly implicated in incidents of histamine poisoning, which leads to the common usage of the term "scombroid fish poisoning" to describe this illness. However, certain non-scombroid fish, most notably mahi-mahi, Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Ebola update (32): research & genomics

Ebola -- DR CongoLanderas-Bueno S, Wasserman H, Oliveira G, et al. Cellular mRNA triggers structural transformation of Ebola virus matrix protein VP40 to its essential regulatory form. Cell Rep. 2021; 35(2): 108986. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2021.108986. PMID: 33852858; An interesting study that confirms Ebola virus protein VP40 as a promising target for antiviral compounds. - Mod.LK]******[2] Airborne Ebola virus detectionDate: Tue 20 Apr 2021Source: Homeland Security Today [edited]Natural Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Undiagnosed deaths, ovine – India: (JK) RFI

Undiagnosed -- IndiaThe villagers from Azmatabad area of Thannamandi Sub Division held a protest today [18 Apr 2021], as about 47 sheep have died due to some mysterious disease in the area.Sources said that the villagers alleged that during the last 2 weeks, about 47 sheep of [about 5] villagers died due to a "mysterious" disease. Today, [18 Apr 2021] 3 sheep of [another] owner also died due to and unknown disease.They alleged that [their representative] made a request to the concerned officials Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> COVID-19 update (142): brain damage, India, pneumonia Japan, WHO, global

COVID-19 -- IndiaWHO region (no. countries/territories):Total confirmed cases (new cases in last 24 hours) / Total deaths (new deaths in last 24 hours)----------------------------------Western Pacific Region (19): 2 224 229 (18 541) / 35 103 (185)European Region (61): 49 364 480 (156 016) / 1 037 693 (2399)South East Asia Region (10): 17 981 667 (285 133) / 239 662 (1830)Eastern Mediterranean Region (22): 8 497 014 (52 320) / 171 552 (972)Region of the Americas (54): 59 757 984 (206 984) / 1 450 Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> BSE, cattle – Spain (02): (EX) atypical H-type, OIE

BSE -- SpainSummaryReport type: immediate notificationStarted: 24 Mar 2021Confirmed: 25 Mar 2021Reported: 19 Apr 2021Reason for notification: recurrenceLast occurrence: 22 Dec 2020Causal agent: prion (atypical BSE type H)Nature of diagnosis: necropsy, laboratoryThis event pertains to a defined zone within the country.New outbreaksSummary of outbreaksTotal outbreaks (1)Outbreak location 1: Jerez de los Caballeros, Badajoz, ExtremaduraStarted: 24 Mar 2021Ended: 16 Apr Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> COVID-19 update (141): animal, USA (GA) aquarium, otter

COVID-19 -- United StatesThe Georgia Aquarium said Sunday [18 Apr 2021] its Asian small-clawed otters tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.The aquarium said the otters are "doing well" and expected to make a full recovery.The Georgia Aquarium said in a statement that officials believe the disease was transmitted to the otters by an asymptomatic staff member, despite health and safety protocols in place.Aquarium officials said the otters began exhibiting mild respiratory Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Zika virus (02): Americas, Africa, research, observations

Zika virus -- Costa RicaBackgroundZika virus (ZIKV) may cause severe congenital disease after maternal-fetal transmission. No vaccine is currently available.ObjectiveTo assess the safety and immunogenicity of Ad26.ZIKV.001, a prophylactic ZIKV vaccine candidate.DesignPhase 1 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. ( NCT03356561)SettingUnited States.Participants100 healthy adult volunteers.InterventionAd26.ZIKV.001, an adenovirus serotype 26 Read more [...]

PRO/PL> Powdery mildew, hazelnut – Europe: emerging pathogen

Other Plant Disease -- Worldwide/Unknown_Erysiphe corylacearum_, causing an emerging powdery mildew of hazelnuts, was first observed in Romania in 2019-2020 on hazelnut trees (_Corylus avellana_) in forests in the Eastern and Southern Carpathian Mountains.[ref: Chinan VC, Mânzu CC. Occurrence of _Erysiphecorylacearum_ causing powdery mildew of _Corylus avellana_ in Romania. Forest Pathology, 2021; e12681; ]--Communicated by:ProMED******[2]Date: February 2021Source: European Plant Protection Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Influenza (06): USA (WI) swine origin H1N1v

Influenza H1N1 -- United StatesThe Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported a human infection with a novel influenza A virus in a Wisconsin child. The patient, a child less than 18 years of age, was infected with an influenza A(H1N1) variant (A(H1N1)v) virus.According to the CDC's FluView report, the child was not hospitalized and has completely recovered from their illness. Investigation into the source of the infection revealed that the patient had direct contact with swine.No Read more [...]

PRO/EDR> Poliomyelitis update (05): global, Afghanistan campaign, Yemen

Polio -- Worldwide/UnknownRationaleBackgroundPoliovirus has reemerged in Yemen, with the 1st cases identified in June and July 2020. Since January 2020, 30 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) cases have been reported, spreading among a few select districts in Sa'ada governorate. Sa'ada governorate is located in northwestern Yemen and was estimated to have a population of 934 000 as of the 2021 Humanitarian Needs Overview (HNO). It is one of the governorates most affected by both current Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> COVID-19 update (140): animal, Latvia, mink, OIE

COVID-19 -- LatviaSummaryReport type: Immediate notificationDate of start of the event: 10 Apr 2021Date of confirmation of the event: 10 Apr 2021Report date: 16 Apr 2021Reason for notification: Emerging diseaseMorbidity: 0.01%Mortality: 0.01%Zoonotic potential description: Most likely the disease introduction happened through the infected workers.Causal agent: SARS-CoV-2This event pertains to the whole country.New outbreaks (1)Total outbreaks: 1Outbreak location: Lecava, Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> COVID-19 update (139): Pfizer effects, airborne trans. Australia, WHO, global

COVID-19 -- Worldwide/UnknownWHO region (no. countries/territories):Total confirmed cases (new cases in last 24 hours) / Total deaths (new deaths in last 24 hours)--------------------------------------------------------------------------------Western Pacific Region (19): 2 204 866 (19 801) / 34 909 (122)European Region (61): 49 199 873 (203 134) / 1 035 009 (2592)South East Asia Region (10): 17 696 534 (272 989) / 237 832 (1744)Eastern Mediterranean Region (22): 8 444 694 (47 840) /170 580 (775)Region Read more [...]

PRO/EDR> Hepatitis A – UK: imported dates, susp, alert, recall

Hepatitis A -- United KingdomOfficials in the UK are investigating close to 30 related hepatitis A infections with some linked to imported dates. There are 28 people sick in different parts of England since the start of 2021, according to Public Health England (PHE). The agency added a number of people reported eating dates with epidemiological studies and product testing continuing.PHE and the Food Standards Agency (FSA) are investigating the non-travel related cases of hepatitis A and work is ongoing Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> African horse sickness – South Africa: (WC) OIE

African Horse Sickness -- South AfricaGeneral informationReport type: immediate notificationStarted on: 9 Apr 2021Confirmed on: 14 Apr 2021Reported on: 16 Apr 2021Reason for notification: recurrenceLast occurrence: 12 Jun 2016Causal agent: African horse sickness virusSerotype: not typedNature of diagnosis: clinical, laboratoryThis event pertains to a defined zone within the country.New outbreakSummary of outbreaksTotal outbreaks (1)Outbreak location: Cederberg, West Coast, Western CapeDate of start Read more [...]

PRO/PL> Downy mildew, spinach – Europe, USA: new strains

Other Plant Disease -- United StatesTwo new strains of downy mildew of spinach (_Peronospora farinosa_) have been named by the International Working Group on Peronospora in Spinach (IWGP). Isolate SP1924 which was found in Europe will be called race Pe 18. Isolate UA202001E, found in the USA, will be called race Pe 19. Several spinach varieties resistant to both are already available.Both of the new races pose a considerable threat for spinach industries worldwide. The resistant varieties are an Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Newcastle disease – South Africa (EC): (EC) wild bird

Newcastle Disease -- South AfricaBirds reportedly falling out of the sky and found dead in parts of the Eastern Cape have died of Avian Paramyxovirus and Newcastle diseases.The Eastern Cape department of Rural Development and Agrarian Reform confirmed the test results on Tuesday [13 Apr 2021].Hundreds of bird deaths have been reported in the Buffalo City Municipality since March [2021], which prompted Neville's Snake and Reptile Rescue to collect dead birds for testing at the SPCA. Wild birds found Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> COVID-19 update (138): transmission, outdoor spread, variants, tech, WHO, global

COVID-19 -- Worldwide/UnknownProvince - B.1.1.7 / B.1.351 / P.1 Screened*Canada - 57 103 / 411 / 2195 / 85 920Ontario - 32 327 / 101 / 207 / 27 032Alberta - 15 627 / 32 / 168 / 34 685British Columbia - 3858 / 71 / 1810 / 0Quebec - 2554 / 163 / 8 / 17 085Saskatchewan - 1703 / 9 / 0 / 2614Manitoba - 622 / 20 / 1 / 67New Brunswick - 180 / 4 / 0 / 0Newfoundland and Labrador 178 / 1 / 0 / 0Nova Scotia - 45 / 10 / 0 / 0Prince Edward Island 6 / 6 / 0 / 0 Yukon - 2 / 0 / 1 / 0Northwest Territories 1 Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> COVID-19 update (137): thrombosis risk, comment, variants, UK/India, WHO, global

COVID-19 -- Worldwide/UnknownMany viruses can hamper coagulation, including those that cause dengue fever and yellow fever. In more severe cases, they may lead to bleeding. This is why these diseases are considered hemorrhagic viral fevers. In a paper recently published in the science magazine "Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz," a group of 10 researchers argues that the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) should be the 1st agent recognized as acting in the opposite fashion, by increasing the formation Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Lumpy skin disease – Asia (04): Taiwan (NT) cattle, OIE

Lumpy Skin Disease -- ChinaSummaryReport type: immediate notificationStarted: 14 Apr 2021Confirmed: 15 Apr 2021Reported: 15 Apr 2021Reason for notification: recurrenceLast occurrence: 30 Sep 2020Causal agent: lumpy skin disease virusNature of diagnosis: clinical, laboratoryThis event pertains to a defined zone within the country.New outbreaksSummary of outbreaksTotal outbreaks (1)Outbreak location 1: Line district, New TaipeiStarted: 14 Apr 2021Epidemiological unit: farmTotal animals Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Avian influenza (64): Mali, poultry, HPAI H5N1, 1st rep, OIE

Avian Influenza H5N1 -- MaliGeneral informationReport type: Immediate notificationDate of start of the event: 12 Mar 2021Date of confirmation of the event: 1 Apr 2021Reason for notification: 1st occurrence of the disease in the countryManifestation of disease: Clinical diseaseCausal agent: Highly pathogenic avian influenza virusSerotype: H5N1Nature of diagnosis: Clinical, laboratoryThis event pertains to the whole country.Outbreaks (3)Outbreak location 1: Hamdallaye, SikassoDate of start of the Read more [...]

PRO/EDR> Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (06): Africa (Nigeria)

Cholera -- NigeriaAt least 50 people have died in a suspected cholera outbreak in 2021 in Nigeria, local health authorities have confirmed. Some 8 states across the country had reported the suspected cholera outbreak, according to the Nigeria Center for Disease Control (NCDC)."As of 28 Mar 2021, a total of 1746 suspected cases including 50 deaths with a case fatality rate that is 2.9% have been reported," said Chikwe Ihekweazu, head of the NCDC.--Communicated by:ProMED from HealthMap Alerts[As Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> African swine fever – Europe (08): Russia, Ukraine, domestic, OIE

African Swine Fever -- RussiaGeneral informationReport type: Immediate notificationStarted: 11 Apr 2021Confirmed: 12 Apr 2021Reported: 14 Apr 2021Reason for notification: RecurrenceLast occurrence: 20 Dec 2020Manifestation of disease: Clinical diseaseCausal agent: African swine fever virusNature of diagnosis: LaboratoryThis event pertains to a defined zone within the country.Outbreak location: Koteleve, Novoseliskyi, ChernivtsiDate of start of the outbreak: 12 Apr 2021Epidemiological unit: Read more [...]

PRO/AH/EDR> Malaria, artemisinin resistance – Africa

Malaria -- Worldwide/UnknownCitation: Uwimana A, Umulisa N, Venkatesan M, et al. Association of _Plasmodium falciparum kelch13_ R561H genotypes with delayed parasite clearance in Rwanda: an open-label, single-arm, multicentre, therapeutic efficacy study. Lancet. Epub 14 Apr 2021. Summary------Background: Partial artemisinin resistance is suspected if delayed parasite clearance (i.e., persistence of parasitaemia on day 3 after treatment initiation) is observed. Validated markers of artemisinin partial Read more [...]